Diarrhea is nothing but the condition in which, there will be frequent, loose, watery stools or an abnormal increase in the frequency and liquid content of the stools or defecation. All the stools or defecation contains little water but in the condition like diarrhea it has been increased.
Human intestines digest the food, absorb the nutrients from the food and finally leave the waste material that is expelled out of the body, known as stools or defecation. Generally large intestines absorbs the watery portion and makes the stools stiffs but not as hard as rock. Due to many reasons, the digestive system gets affected and it loses its functions. The intestines cannot digest the food properly and makes the stools watery.
There are many reasons that can cause the diarrhea. The first and most significant is infections. Any abdominal infections may bring diarrhea as a symptom. The microorganisms affect the intestines and then they cause the diarrhea. These infectious diseases include typhoid fever, cholera gastroenteritis etc. Other common causes include intolerance of any food or food allergy. The intestines get irritated and lose their functions. Any kind of food poisoning may also end up in diarrhea. There are certain medications that can cause diarrhea. For instance, some antibiotics (amoxicillin) can cause the diarrhea as its side effects.
Diarrhea can also be caused by virus and unfortunately there is no treatment available for virus except just supplying the water that is lost. These types of diarrheas generally subside by their own and they do not require specific treatment other than the re-hydration.
The symptoms for diarrhea is watery stools and some patients may experience abdominal cramps while defecation. The diarrhea may turn into life-threatening disease if the frequency of and quantity of losing water increases. This will cause dehydration and is fatal because the body loses its electrolytes and the tissues start dying. Diarrhea often turns into dehydration in children and therefore, children with diarrhea are never taken as light case of the disease.
In children, especially babies, the diarrhea should be controlled as early as possible. Their eyes and mouth become dry. The abdomen gets sunken and they stop playing and probably feeding too. These are the prime symptoms of having diarrhea and later on the dehydration. Diarrhea can be followed by vomiting, which makes the condition worse in children.
The treatment is re-hydration. The fluid that is lost during the diarrhea is to be replaced immediately. Certain cases require antibiotics to control the infection and then the symptoms are treated accordingly. The IV (intravenous fluids) play vital role in treating the diarrhea. The intravenous fluids contain vital electrolytes those are lost in the diarrhea.
WHO recommends ORS (oral rehydration solution) to start as soon as one starts suffering from diarrhea. This is very essential fluid for children. The ORS is specific condition of water, sugar and salt. The ORS is to be supplied as much as a child can drink. However, the case is to be seen by doctor earliest possible.